Speed facts of car driving

Vehicle travel speeds affect both the risk of crash involvement and the severity of crashes, and subsequent injuries. Speed is a critical factor in every serious crash, and speeding was identified as a contributing factor in an estimated 36% of fatal crashes (2007-2011). Reductions in travel speed save lives and injuries. Reductions in the average travel speed across the network is the most effective and swift way to reduce road trauma and would produce significant and immediate road safety benefits.

Why is speeding a problem?

If we all do the right thing and drive within the speed limit, lives will be saved and serious injuries will be prevented. A reduction of 5 km/h in average travel speed would reduce rural casualty crashes by about 30% and urban crashes by about 25%.  This is a significant saving of lives and injuries for South Australians.

Stopping distance

A critical factor in the relationship between speed and crashes is stopping distance. There are two components to stopping distance:

  1. The distance travelled by the vehicle during the time it takes for the driver to react; and
  2. The distance travelled once the brakes have been applied.

The impact of speeding on crash risk

The risk of a casualty crash approximately doubles with each 5km/h increase in speed on a 60km/h speed limited road, or with each 10km/h increase in speed on 110km/h roads.
It is illegal to drive at any speed above the speed limit.

Vehicle travel speeds affect both the risk of crash involvement and the severity of crashes, and subsequent injuries.

Driving over the speed limit:

  • increases your chances of being involved in a crash
  • means you have less time to react to avoid a crash
  • takes longer to stop the vehicle to avoid a crash
  • increases the severity of injury in a crash.

vicroads driving instructors

When is an instructor licence required?

Driving Instructors are covered under the Driving Instructors Act 1992, and Driving Instructors Regulation 2003. The legislation requires any person who teaches another person to drive for money or reward to hold an Instructor’s licence.
Prerequisites for a driving instructor licence

A person is not eligible to be issued with a driving instructor licence unless the person:
Has reached the age of 21 years, and

  • Is the holder of a driver licence* of the relevant class**, and
  • Has, for a period of not less than 3 years during the period of 4 years before the date of the application, held a driver       licence1. of the relevant class2., and
  • Has been authorised by the Authority to undertake, and has passed, a course in driving instruction approved by the Authority and conducted by an organisation approved by the Authority.

* A drivers licence means a licence, other than a learner licence, a provisional licence, a probationary licence or a restricted licence.
** The relevant class means the class of vehicles for which the instructor licence is applied for.
Restricted driving instructor licence

Restricted driving instructor licence

Restricted driving instructor licences are available for providers of post-licence instruction.

The restricted licence is issued with the condition, “Restricted licence, the licensee is not permitted to instruct people who hold a learner driver licence”, clearly displayed on the front of the licence.

To be issued with a restricted licence applicants must:

  • Meet all existing eligibility requirements of the Driving Instructor Act and Regulations (minimum age, hold licence tenure etc).
  • Complete all existing application requirements (Driving Instructor DKT, Medical, police checks etc).
  • Be issued with a letter of eligibiity, in accordance with all existing requirements.
  • Obtain one of the following qualifications: TAA04 or TAE10 or Diploma in Education or equivalent higher qualification (as approved by RMS).
  • Pass an assessment on the Driving Instructor Act and Regulations assessed by RMS.
  • Restricted licences are only available for car and motorcycle Driving Instructor licences. They are not available for any heavy vehicle driving instructor licences.

    Applicants for restricted licences are exempt from:

  • TLI41207 Certificate IV in Driving Instruction.
  • Impart Knowledge Test.

Driving Licence Holders Health and medicals

Do I need a medical test?

Certain licensees must submit a satisfactory medical report before their licence can be renewed or maintained.  Holders of a Mobility Parking Scheme (MPS) card may be required to provide a medical report when they apply for the issue, reissue, renewal or replacement of their licence if Roads and Maritime Services has not been advised of any medical condition on the licence. See Fitness to drive and MPS permits for more details.

Licence class C, LR, MR, HR, HC and Rider.

  • Medical required at age 75 then annually.

Licence class MC.

  • Medical required at age 21 then every 10 years.
  • Medical required at age 40 then every 5 years.
  • Medical required at age 60 then every 2 years.
  • Medical required at age 70 then annually.

All Licence Holders

The law requires the holder of a driver licence to notify, as soon as practicable, Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) of any long term injury or illness that may impair his or her ability to drive safely. RMS must be satisfied that all licence holders are medically fit to drive.  The medical standards for drivers are set by the National Transport Commission and AUSTROADS, and are set out in ‘Assessing Fitness to Drive’ (available from the AUSTROADS website). ‘Assessing Fitness to Drive’ was recently revised in 2012.  Frequently Asked Questions about the revision in 2012 can be found here.

A licence holder can be directed to have regular medical examinations because of a medical condition or because of advanced age. Some drivers must also have an annual driving test.

The rules apply to all licence holders, including people who have three or five year licences.
Medical Examinations

If you are required to have a medical examination, RMS will send you a letter approximately eight weeks before you are due for a medical examination. On the back of the letter is a medical report form to be completed by your doctor, indicating whether you are medically fit to drive.

You ask your doctor whether an appointment is required to have the form completed. If your doctor considers you medically fit to drive and hands the completed report to you, return it to a motor registry.

If you would prefer to restrict your driving, for instance, to certain times of the day or to within an area where you live, you should discuss it with your doctor at the time of your compulsory medical test.

If your doctor considers you medically unfit to drive or wants to refer your case to a second doctor, he or she will send the medical report directly to RMS. You will be notified of the decision about your licence by RMS soon after.

Note: Section G.13.1 of the Medicare Benefits Schedule states ‘Medicare benefits be paid for the following categories of health screening: – age or health related medical examinations to obtain or renew a licence to drive a private motor vehicle’.
Disclosure of a medical condition for the first time

A customer who discloses to RMS for the first time that he or she suffers from diabetes, epilepsy, giddiness, blackouts, fainting or other sudden periods of unconsciousness, must provide a satisfactory medical report before he or she can receive or renew a licence.

A customer who discloses to RMS for the first time that he or she has monocular vision must provide a satisfactory eyesight report before he or she can receive or renew a licence.

Customers who have already declared these medical conditions to RMS can renew their licences provided that RMS medical review requirements have been met.

Customers with diabetes that is controlled by diet are no longer required to provide an initial medical report.

Customers who already hold a NSW driver licence can obtain a medical report form from any motor registry or by calling 13 22 13.
Driving Tests

If you need to pass a driving test as well as a medical examination it will be printed at the top of the letter. You can only take a driving test after a doctor has declared you medically fit to drive.

To avoid delays call 13 22 13 or go to your nearest motor registry to make an appointment as soon as possible.

RMS’s A guide to the Driving Test is available for download or free from any motor registry. It tells you what is involved in a driving test and what you will be tested on.
Occupational Therapist Reviews

Drivers with certain health conditions may require a driving assessment by a suitably qualified occupational therapist before a licence will be issued or reissued.

Requirements to Become a Driving Instructor

A Driving Instructor is a person approved by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles to teach another person to drive a motor vehicle (of the approved class) in exchange for fee, reward, salary, wages or other remuneration or consideration. Approval is valid for five (5) years, unless sooner cancelled/suspended or revoked.

To become a Driving Instructor in the NT you need to have held the relevant class of licence for a period of three (3) consecutive years immediately prior to application. You will also need to:

  1. be certified as medically fit by a medical practitioner (in accordance with the Commercial Standards of the nationally agreed guidelines “Assessing Fitness to Drive”);
  2. pass a Police traffic and criminal history check, (the National Police Clearance and Complete Traffic History checks can be arranged through Safe NT or your local Police Station, clearly identifying that an employment check is required for the profession of a Driving Instructor);  and,
  3. you must complete the required training course delivered by an Approved course provider (listed below are local NT providers and a link to interstate Accredited providers).

Driving Instructors are to comply with the Code of Practice for Driving Instructors in the NT.

There are currently two training courses (qualifications) that will allow you to become a driving instructor in the NT and these are:

  • TLI41210 Certificate IV in Transport and Logistics (Road Transport – Car Driving Instruction)
  • TLI41310 Certificate IV in Transport and Logistics (Road Transport – Heavy Vehicle Driving Instruction)

Only qualifications issued by an accredited course provider will be accepted for the issue of an NT Driving Instructor endorsement. Qualifications issued by non-accredited course providers will not be recognised as the course may not have been conducted to the standard required by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles.

Safety barriers

In instances where a roadside hazard cannot be made safe, removed or relocated, it may be necessary to provide physical protection from the hazard. Safety barriers are available for a variety of applications and this section provides advice on selecting, installing and maintaining safety barriers.

The Australian Standard document “AS/NZS 3845:1999 Road Safety Barrier Systems” discusses various methods of roadside hazard protection and provides direction on the correct use of the different systems. The Standard has been the basis for a number of guidelines written by individual road authorities for use within their jurisdiction.

It should also be noted that the Austroads publication Safety Barriers (1987) is currently being reviewed and updated.Decision to install a safety barrier

Safety barriers are a form of roadside hazard. When considering whether to install a safety barrier, it is important to remember that the barrier will present some danger to the occupants of errant vehicles, and especially to unprotected road users such as motorcyclists. A barrier should only be installed if collision with it will present less of an injury risk to vehicle users and occupants than would result from collision with the roadside hazard that is to be shielded by the barrier.

It is important to consider specifically the danger posed to motorcyclists by both the hazard and the intended safety barrier. As essentially unprotected road users, motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to unforgiving roadside environments; any obstacle in the path of an errant motorcyclist has the potential to cause severe injury. If it is decided that a safety barrier is necessary at a site, attention should be paid to the design of the barrier to ensure that it poses as little risk as possible to colliding motorcyclists.
Barrier types

The following sections describe a number of roadside safety barriers and end-treatments. This list does not contain all available types of barrier, and the practitioner should be aware that manufacturers continually develop new or improved barrier designs. Accordingly, the information presented here refers to testing procedures, the results of which can be used to determine the suitability of proposed barriers. No barrier should be installed unless it has been shown to meet the applicable standards and can therefore be expected to perform satisfactorily.

Barrier types include rigid barriers, semi-rigid barriers and flexible barriers. Semi-rigid and flexible barriers are preferred as they generally cause less damage to vehicles during a crash, while a rigid barrier is suitable where space is limited and it is placed relatively close to the traffic lane (eg. narrow median).

Where a barrier is essential, the practitioner should bear in mind that barrier posts are the main cause of injury to motorcyclists. Other barrier attributes that are considered to be dangerous to motorcyclists (ATSB 2000) include upper and lower edges (particularly if jagged edges exist), protruding reflectors, low barrier mounting height (as motorcyclists can be thrown over the barrier) and rigid barriers.

Guards have been designed to reduce the severity of motorcycle collisions with barriers. These are available in a range of designs for various types of barrier.

Drive Test procedures

Pre-drive safety check

Before beginning the Drive Test the LTO will direct the applicant to perform a pre-drive safety check

1.The applicant is required to identify and operate the following vehicle controls:

1. The applicant is required to identify and operate the following vehicle controls:

  • turn indicators
  • brake lights
  • horn
  • headlights (high and low beam)*
  • hazard lights
  • windscreen washer and wipers.

2. The applicant is required to identify the handbrake.

3. The applicant is asked to identify, but not operate, the following controls:
windscreen demisterrear window demister (where fitted).

4. The applicant is required to start the engine.

If the applicant fails to satisfy the requirements in Items 1 and 2, or if any of the vehicle controls listed in Items 1 and 2 do not operate correctly, the applicant is not permitted to undertake the Drive Test.If the applicant fails to identify the controls listed in Item 3, the LTO should point out the relevant control(s) to the applicant, but still allow the applicant to undertake the Drive Test.If it becomes necessary to use one of these controls during the Drive Test and the applicant requires assistance to operate the control, an Immediate Termination Error (Intervention)
should be recorded.The pre-drive safety check does not contribute to the applicant’s test score.

* The LTO should direct the applicant to turn the headlights on (low beam) throughout Stages 1 and 2 of the Drive Test.

change your address with Motor Vehicle Registry

You can change your address with Motor Vehicle Registry (MVR) online, by telephone or by visiting a motor registry.


Customers who hold a NT driver licence or a NT vehicle registration can change their residential or mailing address online.

To update your address online you must provide your:

  • The transaction number located on the upper right hand side of your renewal notice or
  • Your customer ID and your licence number; or
  • Your customer ID and your registration number.


If you want to change your address by telephone, call 1300 654 628.To update your address via telephone, you must provide your:

  • Licence or registration number
  • Full name
  • Date of birth
  • Current address
  • New address

Motor Vehicle Registry

If you want to change your address in person, you must provide your:

  • Driver licence number or registration plate number(s)
  • Full name
  • Date of birth
  • Current address
  • New address



Drivers with a disability

The following information is for customers who advise RMS that they suffer from a physical disability which may affect their ability to control a motor vehicle. All customers with a physical disability are given a fair opportunity to demonstrate their driving ability in a standard test. However, if the customer declares a disability that will affect their driving, a disability driving test has to be given. The purpose of a disability driving test is to ensure that people with a disability are assessed on their capabilities for safely controlling motor vehicles.

It is a legal responsibility of any driver to notify RMS of any long term or serious illnesses, injuries and/or mental or physical disabilities as soon as practicable. The national ‘Assessing Fitness to Drive’ medical standards has been adopted by all licensing jurisdictions and medical practitioners in Australia and provides information about specific medical and physical disabilities.

Disabilities for licence applicants fall into two broad categories: minor disabilities and serious disabilities.

Minor disabilities

Minor disabilities are considered not to prevent the customer from safely operating a vehicle include the loss of three fingers or fewer on one hand, the loss of toes, slight stiffness of a joint, one limb slightly shorter than the other, or other minor disability. RMS can issue a licence in the normal manner to a person with a minor disability. There is no need for a medical report or disability driving test, or to assign any licence condition to the licence, provided there is no other medical conditions declared that requires a medical examination and report.

Serious disabilities

Serious disabilities include the loss or serious impairment of one or both legs, loss or serious impairment of one or both arms, the loss of more than three fingers on one hand, or other mental or physical disability. In most cases, customers with serious disabilities will require the use of special aids, appliances and/or vehicle modifications in order to safely operate a motor vehicle to an appropriate safe standard (e.g the use of artificial limb(s), hand controls, steering wheel aid, electronic indicators, etc).

Any person using special aids, appliances and/or vehicle modifications must undertake a disability driving test in order to be issued, or to retain, a driver licence.

When a licensee has a disability that limits body movement, or requires the use of a special aid, appliances and/or vehicle modifications, RMS applies the following principles in determining their fitness to drive.

Appliances worn

The mass or dimensions of any appliance worn by a person must not impair the control of the vehicle.

Leg disabilities

When neither leg can be used, hand controls are required.

The leg operating the accelerator and footbrake generally requires some mobility of the hip, knee and ankle. The leg operating the clutch (if fitted) generally requires similar mobility.

In automatic cars, the accelerator and brake can be operated either by the right or left leg, or both (one to each control). For left leg operation, the accelerator should be fitted to the left of the footbrake, unless RMS approves operations with the accelerator and footbrake in their normal positions.

Any customer requiring the use of a prosthetic limb (artificial) to help operate the accelerator, footbrake and/or clutch must undertake a disability driving test before commencing to drive unaccompanied with the appliance worn.  It may be necessary for RMS to restrict the customers driving until appropriate assessments have been completed.

A current licence holder who has had their left leg amputated but has full use of their right leg does not have to undertake a driving test, if they choose to drive automatic vehicles only. In this case, the existing licence will be endorsed with the condition ‘May drive only an automatic vehicle’.

Arm disabilities

The use of one arm may be enough to drive an automatic vehicle, but the driver must be able to reach and operate the major controls, without removing their hand from the steering wheel.  In some cases modifications such as extended indicator switch or electronic indicator may need to be fitted to the vehicle.

Usually a steering wheel aid (spinner knob) is required (eg where there is a loss of more than three fingers on one hand) and power steering may be necessary or advisable.

The operation of the parking brake as an emergency brake is not essential if a dual-circuit braking system is fitted (as in all cars built since 1972). A licence condition ‘Vehicle to have dual circuit brakes or handbrake operable by left/right hand’ may be endorsed on the licence.

Neck/head disabilities

If the applicant has a severe restriction to head rotation, wing mirrors or a panoramic/fisheye rear vision mirror must be fitted to each side of the vehicle to improve rear and side vision.  It is not necessary for drivers with additional mirrors installed only to undertake a disability driving test, but appropriate licence conditions for the use of mirrors will need to be endorsed on the driver licence.

Vehicles modified for people with disabilities

There are very few production vehicles made for people with disabilities. In most cases, standard production vehicles are specially modified to cater for drivers and passengers with disabilities. Modifications can range from simple additions of a steering wheel spinner knob to major modifications to the vehicle body structure such as extending the body length and altering the roof of the vehicle.

Customers requiring simple vehicle modifications or appliances, (such as left foot accelerator, steering wheel aid, panoramic/fisheye mirrors) should attend a RMS registry to have any appropriate modifications and conditions added to their licence. RMS will decide, in consultation with the licensee of what appropriate modifications are best suited to the customer’s disability.

Customers requiring the use of major modifications, (such as hand controls, vehicle body structure changes) are recommended to undertake assessment and training with a recognised and driver trained Occupational Therapist, before having a vehicle modified. Occupational Therapist will be able to assist with finding the right modifications suited to the specific disability and assist in having the modification fitted in the vehicle by a RMS approved installer.

The Australian Association of Occupational Therapists is able to supply a list of the locations of Occupational Therapists with the appropriate training.  It is always recommended that customers seek the advice of an Occupational Therapist, qualified in driver assessment and training.

For Information about vehicles modified for people with disabilities, download Vehicle Standards Information Sheet – 21 or contact RMS Technical Enquiries on 1300 137 302.

First time drivers with a serious disabiltiy

When a customer with a serious disability applies for a licence for the first time, the customer will be asked to provide a satisfactory medical report from their treating doctor before any licence is issued.  This is to ensure that RMS is fully aware of the condition, and to provide the doctor with an opportunity to recommend any specific licence conditions, vehicle modifications or any relevant further assessments (such as an occupational therapist driving assessment).

Any licence issued to the customer will need to be endorsed with any relevant licence condition(s) suitable to the disability. If vehicle modifications are required, it will be necessary for the modifications to be fitted to the vehicle during the learner licence process. Once the customer has complied with all other relevant learner driver requirements, it will be necessary for a disability driving test to be completed prior to   upgrading to a Provisional class of driver licence.

Current licence holders with a serious disability

A current licence holder notifying RMS of a serious disability for the first time (i.e. a newly acquired condition) will be required to provide RMS with a medical report from their treating doctor to confirm their current condition and medical fitness to resume driving.  Customers should consult with their doctor at this time about the potential impact that their disability may have on safely operating a motor vehicle and should not re-commence driving until RMS has been notified and appropriate approval has been given.

Once a satisfactory medical report has been provided, RMS may require for the driver to undertake a disability driving test before resuming driving.  Depending on the type of serious disability, RMS may need to restrict or revoke the driver licence until the driving test has been completed.

If the customer requires special aids, appliances and/or vehicle modifications, their licence will need to be endorsed with special conditions appropriate to the disability. The condition(s) will be chosen by RMS in consultation with the licensee. In circumstances where the customer requires major modifications it is recommended that an assessment with a driver trained occupational therapist is undertaken before the customer resumes driving. www.darshandrivingschool.com.au